6. Dimensions of Predictive Innovation

6. Dimensions of Predictive Innovation

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There are 6 dimensions used in Predictive Innovation. Finding What, How, When, and Where primarily deal with 3 of these dimensions. Why and Who requires more depth of all 6 dimensions. The 6 dimensions are:
Dimensions of Predictive Innovation

  1. Actors – are people involved in making and using innovations
  2. Desires – are the focus of innovation
  3. Scenarios – are the boundaries of a set of desires
  4. Alternatives – the ways of satisfying desires
  5. Outcomes – are the objective criteria that defines satisfaction
  6. Elements – are the detailed parts of an Outcome



There are 8 types of Actors. Each Actor can be a single person or multiple people. There is always at least one person who is the User. Users are the central focus of innovation. If the users’ desires are not satisfied innovation fails. The 8 types of Actors are:





Customers are divided into four distinct roles: Beneficiary, User, Buyer, and Payer. Roles can be performed by one or more people but someone performs each of the roles. The desires of the person acting in that role are different from the desires related to the other roles.

Users are people who use the product or service. There must be at least one User. Satisfying the desires of the User is essential to innovation. Examples of Users’ desires are:

  • How well the product performs the task
  • Feelings related to using the product.

Beneficiaries experience the benefits of the product or service. In most cases the User and the Beneficiary are the same person but not always. Products used in performing a service have a different User than the Beneficiary.

Deciders make the decision to purchase the product or service. Examples of Deciders’ desires are:

  • price
  • warranty
  • where to purchase the product

Payers supply the money or materials for the innovation. For consumer products the User, Buyer and Payer are often the same person. In business these are usually three different people. Examples of Payers’ desires are:

  • Return on Investment
  • Total cost
  • Achieving a larger strategy

Provider is divided into four roles:

  • designer
  • builder
  • seller
  • communicator

Provider can be divided differently but these four provide a sufficiently accurate description to understand the process. Just like customers these could be a single person or multiple people. The provider could also be the same person as the customer and each of the roles could be shared by people acting in other roles. So the User could be Builder and the other 6 roles be someone else.

Designers convert desires into actionable designs. This frequently is more than one person. Examples of Designers’ desires are:

  • Know criteria to satisfy desires of Actors
  • Access to technology
  • Interesting challenge

Builders convert design into real products. For services the builder does the work. Builders are often many different people. Examples of Builders’ desires are:

  • Ease of production
  • Tools needed
  • Start up costs

Sellers deliver the product or service to the User. The Seller is involved in the purchase transaction. Examples of Sellers’ desires are:

  • Size of market
  • Quantity discounts
  • Turn over
  • Profit margins
  • Hassles of delivering products or services

Communicator gathers information and translates between Actors. Examples of Communicators’ desires are:

  • Know the desires of Actors
  • Able to reach other Actors
  • Accuracy of communication

Customers act as more than just Users. There are markets and innovations for each Actor in a Scenario. Innovation starts by satisfying Users.
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Profitably satisfying unmet desires is the definition of innovation. All Actors have desires. To innovate everyone involved must have their desires satisfied.

Desires alone are not helpful for innovation because desires are subjective and fluctuate. To effectively innovate you must convert subjective desires into objective Outcomes.

The first step of innovation is identifying desires for the User then each other Actor.


Desires have a context. Scenarios are the over-all goal. The desires for drinking coffee in the morning at work are very different from drinking coffee at night while on a date.

There are different desires for each Actor in each Scenario. Innovations satisfy the desires for a scenario. Scenarios define the boundaries of desires. Before you can identify desires you must first establish the scenario.


Outcomes are the objective criteria for satisfying desires. Outcomes can be measured or observed. There are approximately 7 Outcomes for each scenario. Before you can start innovating you need to convert the subjective desires into objective Outcomes. The essential Outcomes for a scenario never change. This is one of the keys to predicting innovations.


Each Outcome can be broken down into 7 Elements. Elements help organize innovation efforts and stimulate thought.


The 7 Elements are:

  1. Objects
  2. Begin State
  3. End State
  4. Actions
  5. Tools
  6. Conditions
  7. Resources

There can be many of each Element for each Outcome but there are always at least one of each Element per Outcome.







15 Alternatives Grid Symbols

Alternatives are one of the most powerful parts of Predictive Innovation. Everything you do in Predictive Innovation will use the 15 Alternatives. You can apply the 15 Alternatives in your daily life to solve seemingly impossible problems, to resolve conflicts, to spark new ideas, and to organize your thoughts.

There are 15 ways to satisfy any desire. The 15 Alternatives describe all the ways. There are at least one of each of the 15 Alternatives for solving any problem.

For each Element of each Outcome there is at least one solution approach for each of the 15 Alternatives. This means there are always at least 105 innovations for any Scenario. Knowing this is one of the ways Predictive Innovation helps you maximize profits, minimize risk and neutralize competition.

Innovation Process

Predictive Innovation Process

  1. Identify users. What do they want to do that identifies them?
  2. Describe the tasks the users are trying to do and the desire it satisfies.
  3. Translate desires into Outcomes.
  4. Convert Outcomes into Functions
    1. Identify Outcomes for each Function
  5. Expand the Elements for each Outcome and Function
    1. Identify all the Objects for each Outcome and Function.
    2. Identify begin and End States of the Objects.
    3. Define the desired End States for each Object.
    4. Find Actions that cause each of the End States.
    5. Describe relevant Conditions for each Action.
    6. List available Resources.
  6. Multiply Alternatives



Chapter 5 Chapter 7


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