Who wants to learn a skill? What desires are they trying to satisfy by performing the task of learning?
Look at the different reasons for learning a skill. Are the reasons satisfied in the same way? Can we group them into functionally similar reasons? Are the differences qualitative or quantitative?
There appear to be two different types of reasons to learn a skill. The first is practical and the second is social.
The practical reasons for learning a skill are different from each other based on level of skill needed when complete. They can be ranked in order:
Even though the skill levels needed are ranked, there isn't a clear unit of measure so we can't quantitatively measure the differences. The difference is by qualitative type.
The social reasons, Entertainment and Share an Experience, are satisfied in different ways from the practical reasons. Even though learning the skill is desirable it is not essential to being entertained or sharing an experience. Enjoying the process is an essential Outcome for the social reasons. Enjoyment is beneficial but not required for the purely practical reasons to learn a skill so there is an overlap.
Drawing 1: Learning a Skill Outcome Diagram
Since there are two different sets of Outcomes lets start with the practical reasons. Draw an Outcome diagram for the task. These Outcomes define successfully performing the task.
The Outcomes for Learning a Skill do not include all related Outcomes. Motivation to learn and perception of the process of learning are factors that should be considered but are not essential to the core set of Outcomes.
The Outcome diagram defines the Objects. The next step is to draw a Function diagram for the process of achieving the Outcomes. The last step of a Function diagram is achieving an Outcome.
Drawing 2: Learning a Skill Function Diagram
Consider that you might need a Function diagram for each Outcome.
Expand the Elements for each of the Outcomes and each of the Functions. Element expansion is a form of structured idea generation. It is not free-form. The goal is to list items for each of the 7 Elements, which are related to the Outcomes and Functions. This focuses your work and keeps it organized for finding patterns later.
Since many people are accustomed to brainstorming it can be helpful to temporarily skip the Outcome and Function diagram, and start by listing Elements. This can help people clarify their thinking before drawing the Function diagram.
You will need some knowledge of the subject matter you are innovating to be able to identify Elements. If you are innovating an engine you will need to understand some amount of mechanics.
There are several combinations of these begin and End States. Depending on the purpose what is desired, undesired, and neutral changes.
Read, Watch, Hear, Touch, Do it, Taste, Smell, Imagine, Measure
Books, magazines, websites, radio, TV, video, pictures, audio recordings, lectures, demonstrations, games, models, activities, samples, measurement devices, tests.
Purpose, demographics, health of learner, other knowledge, past experiences, distractions, time available, comfort, emotions, format of information, language, physical environment, quality of information (incomplete or incorrect)
Medium of information, learner, other knowledge, emotions, physical environment, lecturer, friends, all of the Conditions.
Compare & contrast, Questions and answers, Thought experiment
Logic, restating in own words, lists, diagrams, conversations, email, text chat, phone, if...then statements, language, symbols
Purpose, demographics, health of learner, other knowledge, past experiences, distractions, time available, comfort, emotions, format of information, language
All the Conditions, learner, emotions, physical environment, teacher, friends
Play, simulation, exercise, do the real thing, mental rehearsal
Games, simulation, real thing, simplified version of real thing, slow motion, weights, puzzles
Difficulty of task, environment, health of learner
Objective measures of ability: time to complete an exercise, complexity of exercise completed, percentage of accurate results; measure of the difficulty of a type of practice: number of variables, amount of time given to complete task, number of mistakes allowed.
The final step in the Function diagram is satisfying both of the Outcomes of the Outcome diagram. Achieve Ability is complete when the learner can perform the task and does not need assistance.
There might not be a quantitative measure for ability but it can be broken down into four functionally distinct levels.
Do a task
Complete a test
Test, Questions, Measurement, Score, Mirror, Camera
Time available, level of other abilities, number of skills being learned, wording of the test, time between receiving feedback
Feedback from others, results of previous attempts
Learner is involved in every Outcome in Learning a Skill; so, it makes sense to start finding Alternatives for Learner.
When I first tried to apply the Directions to Learner I was confused. I had difficulty figuring out what was a direct Learner versus a Stable Learner. The problem was I needed to chunk down Learner into Person and Learning. A learner is a person who is learning. Once I chunked down into the two parts it was easy to figure out. Chunking up and down is a useful approach to remember.
Single person instructed
Prohibited Class or individual
Learns how to find person who can do it
Individual discovers skill
One person always learns
Single learns until a point
Single person learns existing information
Individual returns to learning
Skills restored for an individual
Many people instructed
Instructed many times
Learn to find many people who can do it
Many prohibited people
Group makes discovery
Many people always learn
Many people learn until a point
Many people learn existing information
Learn existing information as a group
Group returns to learning
Many people return to learning
Skills are restored for many people
Continually instructed, never independent
Everyone learns by observing
Everyone discovers for themselves
Everyone always learns
Everyone learns until a point then stops
Everyone learns existing information
Everyone returns to learning
No one returns to learning
Commanded one time
Commanded for one task
Commanded for one part of task
Individual doing other activity
Doing one other activity
Doing other activity once
Apply existing knowledge
Teach someone else
Skill becomes permanent
Skill becomes permanent after single time
Part of skill becomes permanent
Regain single skill
Regain skill once
Commanded for part of task
Commanded many times
Doing many other activities
Doing pieces of other activities
Replace many incorrect
Many steps to replace incorrect
Already know some of skill
Already know many skills
Teach many people
Teach many skills
Many skills become permanent
Skill becomes permanent after many times
Skills become permanent in multiple parts
Regain many skills
Regain skill many times
Commanded for everything
Commanded for entire task
Commanded until remembered
Doing every other activity
Doing any other activity
Do nothing, passive learning
Continuously replace incorrect
Replace all incorrect
Already know everything
Already know nothing
Already know anything
All skills become permanent
No skills become permanent
Any skill becomes permanent
Entire skill becomes permanent
Continually regaining skill
Everyone regaining skills
Regain any skill
Reminders for everything
Information to remember
One more detail
Grade / performance
What not to do, contrast
How to find information
Reason for skill
One gains acceptance
Remembered after first time
Reminder, flash card
Information changes once
One part changes
Many new things
Many parts are new
More information many things
Information about the information
Multiple ways to find the information
Told many times before remembered
Many things remembered
Accepted as fact for many Conditions
Many parts change
Changes many times
Many parts uncertain
Always new information
Applies to everyone
All information about the information
Always same information
All information remembered
Becomes considered law
Information always changing
Plain single meaning
Meaningful in one Condition
Opposite / Sarcasm
One thing unknown
Confused about one thing
Doesn't change for one Condition
One meaning stays the same
Takes time to understand
Meaning changes once
Understands after one error
Plain meaning multiple Conditions
Increases meaning multiple Conditions
Many things increase meaning
Partially wrong meaning
Wrong meaning many things
Same meaning many Conditions
Many meaning stay the same
Parts of meaning stay the same
Multiple exposures to understand
Multiple parts before understanding
Part of information before understanding
Corrects meaning many times/ways
Meaning changes many Conditions
Parts change meaning
Always increasing meaning
Increase meaning everything
Meaning is hidden
Same meaning all situations
Understood by everyone
Needs all to understand
Meaning constantly changing
Everything changes meaning
Always becomes clear again
Skill level improves once
One part of skill improves
Other skill change
Task becomes easier
One part of task becomes harder (exercise)
Single skill level stays the same
Skill same in one situation
One skill increases to point (learn once)
Skill increases to a point for one Condition
Skill level fluctuates once
One skill level fluctuates
Many skills improve
Skill improves many times
Skill partially improves
Many other skills change
Skill decreases many times
Parts of task become harder
Parts of task become easier
Partial skill level stays the same
Multiple skill levels stay the same
Skill same in many situations
Multiple skill levels increase to point
Skill plateaus multiple times
Skill level fluctuates many times
Many skill levels fluctuate
Skill level always improves
Completely loses skill
Improves all other skills
Skill level never changes
Skill same in all situations
Maximum skill level achieved
All skills increased to a point
Become expert in all aspects
Skill level never consistent
Continuous practice needed
Do it, experience, see yourself
Read, told, watch video, theory
Fixed belief, one thing, one time
Confirm belief once
Single change or difference
Average one variable
Experience many things directly
Many indirect sources
Indirectly experience many things
Fixed belief, many things
Consistent many times
Confirm belief many times
Confirm many beliefs
Many changes or differences
Average many variables
No direct experience
Believes everything, never changes
Confirm all beliefs
Rate of change
Real thing once
One type of practice
Real thing many times
Parts of real
Simulate multiple aspects
Do same thing many times
Repeat different parts
Simulate all aspects
Same thing every time
Do it once
Lose ability once
Complete practice once
Test completed once
Done many times
Lose many abilities
Complete practice multiple times
Multiple tests completed
Done all aspects
All aspects simulated
Any aspect simulated
Lose all ability
Lose any ability
Complete all practice
All tests completed
Perfect score on test
Test before each time
When you have Elements for all the Outcomes you want to work on, it's time to multiply Alternatives. For problem solving projects describe Alternatives for Elements until you find a suitable solution. For innovation projects describe at least one of each of the 15 Alternatives for each element. This will generate 105 ideas for each Outcome. Since most scenarios have approximately 7 Outcomes you will have approximately 735 focused ideas organized into categories by Outcomes, Elements, and Alternatives. This will help you develop strategies.
Illustration 53: 735 Focused Ideas
Each of the 105 innovation combinations for an Outcome are a type. There can be many different specific innovations for each type. The type is a description of an approach to achieving the Outcome. There can be many specific ways that fit the description.
Many of the Alternatives will have existing products or services. If you find an Alternative that has not been used it is a potential disruptive breakthrough innovation. The description of the other breakthroughs exist with Alternatives that were used in the past but not currently used. Newer technology can make those Alternative approaches achieve better results than current approaches.
Start Multiplying Alternatives by selecting from the list of Actions then describe an example for each of the 15 Alternatives. To help you get started find the box that an existing product fits such as Single Direct, then describe Multiple Direct and Continuous Direct for that product.
As you describe Alternatives you may find boxes that you can't think of examples to match the descriptions. Do not expect to be able to find examples for each box; in fact you want to find boxes that don't have examples. The empty boxes are the future innovations. Describe what should be in those boxes. The description will guide your innovations.
Direct Alternatives are usually the most obvious approach. Those Alternatives directly change the State of the Object. One example of a Single Direct is doing an Action to the Object once. Similarly if the Action can be performed in a single step, it is a Single. Multiple steps or being able to do it more than once is a multiple Action. Continuous is any, all, or none. Being able to do the Action an unlimited number of times is continuous. Being able to perform the Action in a smooth application instead of many steps is continuous. For cookies, that might mean an oven with a conveyor belt instead of cooking in batches.
Size and shape are related Objects. Many different Actions and Tools can be used to change the size or shape of a cookie.
Bite once, bite one direction
Single cut (noun), perform cut (verb) once
Mold one shape or size, mold used one (disposable)
Measure one cookie at a time, measure a single size, measure in one step, measure one material
Bite multiple times, bite more than one direction
Multiple cuts, perform cut multiple times
Mold multiple shapes or sizes, mold used multiple times
Measure multiple cookies at a time, measure multiple sizes, measure in multiple steps, measure multiple materials
Never bite, bite any direction, bite all directions
Cuts all (powder, liquid), perform cut unlimited times
Mold any shape or size, mold used multiple times
Measure any number of cookies at a time, measure all the cookies from a batch at a time, continuously measure (flow measurement, measure throughout process), measure any size, measure any material, measure all materials
Not bite (completely fits in mouth, one cookie, one eater or type of eater), Bite different item, Cookie used to bite
Not cut (only weaken), Puncture, Cookie cuts something.
Create shape without molding, Dough applied to outside of something to create shape. Mouth is mold, forms to hand (squeeze), Cookie molds something else
Don't measure, measure effect instead of cookie (displacement of liquid or gas)
Not bite multiple cookies (very small put many in mouth at once)
Many perforations, many thin spots to ease breaking
Create many shapes without a mold. Apply dough to outside of multiple Objects to create shape. Applied to outside in multiple ways.
Measure multiple other things, use cookie to do measurement
Never bite, cookie is soft enough to eat without biting regardless of size.
Cut: Cookie cuts anything
Mold: Cookie dough sticks to outside of any shape
Measure: Never measure because you know it is correct, statistical process control (SPC)
Keep one cookie the correct size, packaging prevents breakage
Keep rest of cookie together when biting off a piece, doesn't crumble or crack.
Keep the cuts the correct size
Mold, stays correct size and shape
Measure, measure doesn't change
Keep many cookies the correct size, packaging prevents breakage for many cookies, or many Conditions.
Keep cookies separate, many cookies.
Keep many cuts the correct size. Keep cookie the correct size or shape after multiple cuts.
Mold stays the correct size and shape many times.
Measure stays the same many times. Many measurements don't change.
All the cookies are the correct size or shape.
All the cookies are kept separated.
Every cut is correct. Cuts are always correct.
Mold lasts forever. Mold works for any type of cookie.
Measurement continuous adjusted to stay correct.
Cookies become correct size. Shrink as they cool.
Cookie becomes shape of the package.
As the cookie cooks it becomes the correct shape.
Cookies can become many sizes. Able to select the size to which the cookie shrinks when it cools.
Cookies form to packages with many different shapes.
Many different shaped molds that cookies become the shape of as they cook.
Several different shaped nozzles on a tube of pre-made cookie dough.
Always becomes correct size.
All the cookies become the correct size or shape.
Cookies can become any shape. 3D printer makes nozzles of any shape for the tube of pre-made cookie dough.
Mold can be repaired one time.
Single size or shape can change and return to correct size or shape.
Mold can be repaired many times.
Cookie can change size many times and return to correct size.
Mold can always be repaired.
Cookie can be shaped any number of times.
1. Select which can be done with the Single Alternative.
2. Which Scale best describes using different materials for parts of the product to reduce cost?
3. Which Scale best describes creating a higher priced one of a kind product?
4. Which Scale best describes increasing reliability by covering the entire area?
5. Which Scale best describes making a product cheaper by making it in one step?
6. Which Scale best describes making a product easier to build by using more than one part?
7. Which Scale best describes creating a higher priced product that is pure, nothing undesirable?
8. Which Direction best describes making a bolt that is too big fit by changing the hole?
Question 1 of 8
In the bicycle example on page 91, we broke down the bicycle into components, then each component into categories of materials, shapes, sizes, etc. That helped us increase our choices but it didn't really focus our thoughts very well. We just ended up with a long list of options. We need to define the correct dimensions so that we cover the full range.
How can we use the technique of primary elements for innovation?
You've seen the 15 Alternatives, which are arranged into Scale and Direction. And you've seen how to convert subjective desires into objective Outcomes. Applying the 15 Alternatives directly to Outcomes is not enough structure. If we chunk down Outcomes into the 7 Elements, we have exactly what we need to describe every innovation for a specific Scenario.
Illustration 50: 7 Elements of an Outcome
Object is the property or event of the Outcome. The Object is what makes the Outcome objective. Objects are nouns. Innovation can be achieved by using non-obvious Objects. For instance if the problem is heat you might focus on the shape since Objects with more surface area dissipate heat better than more regular shaped Objects. Similarly by changing the color an Object might absorb less heat.
Predictive Innovation website resources section has an extensive list of scientific properties and the units of measurement.
The Begin State is the State or quality that exists before you start. This is what you are either trying to change or keep. States are adjectives describing the Object. States can be described with a number and unit, or a descriptive word such as blue, harder, taller, or solid. State can also be an event recognized as occurring or not occurring.
The End State is the result of the Action for the individual Outcome. It's important to categorize End States as: desired, undesired, or neutral. When listing End States make sure to think of States for all three categories. Great innovations are available from preventing undesired results as well as making desired results.
Actions cause the State of an Object. The Action is the “how” you achieve the goal. The Action causes the State to change or stay the same. Actions are verbs.
Examples of Actions are: cut, join, separate, divide, mix, sort, order, filter, blend, melt, freeze, thaw, or heat.
When listing Actions think of the first 3 Direction Alternatives as plus, minus, and equals. Cutting might be considered a plus since it makes more pieces, gluing together makes less pieces, and turning the Object around leaves the number of pieces the same.
In addition to common verbs there are hundreds of scientific effects that can be used to perform Actions.
Visit the resources section of Predictive Innovation website to see an extensive list of verbs and scientific effects to help you think of Actions.
Tool is directly used to help perform the Action. A Tool can be a physical item or a process. Algebra and language are Tools. A Tool interacts with the Object. If the Action is cut, the Tool might be a: saw, knife, torch, scissors, or laser. Each of those Tools can be used to perform the Action of cutting.
Conditions are any State or quality that effects achieving the Outcome. Conditions affect but are not directly related to the Outcome. The age of the tea leaves or the pH of the water could affect the result of brewing but isn't directly related to brewing. Wet pavement or riding on sand affects a bicycles ability to move and stop.
A Resource is anything available in the environment of the Scenario that can be used to help achieve the result. Resources are not just materials. Information, people, or other components are all possible Resources. When brewing tea, being able to measure the age of tea leaves is a Resource. A chart of times to brew different blends at different temperatures is another Resource. A spoon is a Resource that can be used to stir the tea and better brew the tea. Gravity is another very useful Resource. Resources are potential Tools. It's up to you to find uses for available Resources.
Element expansion is the process of breaking down the Outcomes into the 7 Elements. This is where you begin to find all the innovations. Each Outcome has at least one of each of the 7 Elements.
You need to identify the Outcome you will change to solve the problem or find innovations. For problems there is usually a dilemma. A dilemma is when improving one desired Outcome results in worsening another desired Outcome. You can select either Outcome of a dilemma to focus your work. For innovation, focus on one Outcome at a time.
If you are having trouble drawing an Outcome diagram, it is sometimes useful to start by listing Elements.
When you are first learning to draw Outcome diagrams or when facilitating other people, it can be easier to list Objects, States, and Action then reorganize these into concise Outcomes. Many people are accustomed to brainstorming and will want to use a more free form process to get started.
You can keep the task relatively focused by directing efforts towards the scenario and listing meaningful Objects, States, Actions, and Conditions. This will often help you clarify your thoughts. This is also a good way to capture ideas for solutions for later consideration.
Until you've properly defined the Outcomes you can't evaluate any idea. This is why people put so much emphasis on not judging ideas during a brainstorming session and saying, “there is no such thing as a bad idea.” There clearly are bad ideas and it is very important to judge ideas before investing any time or money. Until you have objective criteria you would only be guessing if you judged the ideas. If you are listing Elements to help you define Outcomes just record all free form ideas because there is no point in overlooking the obvious ideas.
Once you have drawn an Outcome diagram, select the Outcome you want to change then begin by listing Objects for that Outcome. Next list the begin and End States for the Object making sure to note desired, undesired, and neutral States.
Now choose one Object and the States that apply. Look at each Begin State and list Actions that will cause the End States. For problem solving you will often find solutions at this point. For innovation make a note of Actions that seem particularly promising but continue with the process so you won't miss potentially better ideas or complimentary approaches that will help build a strategy for entire product families.
Once you have Actions listed for the States you can list Tools that help perform those Actions.
Finally list Conditions and Resources related to the Action. Review Tools and Actions as you add Conditions and Resources.
There are 4 main Outcomes and 4 sub-Outcomes in Illustration 51: Outcome Diagram for Cookies. The first step for innovation is to select an Outcome to improve. Lets choose Correct Size. This Outcome has two sub-Outcomes, eaten with hands and single serving. The sub-Outcomes provide extra restrictions that we must work within.
Illustration 51: Outcome Diagram for Cookies
Cookies can be given as gifts, looked at, sold for a profit, or eaten. We have to consider the scenario of how we are using cookies to properly think of Outcomes. If we think about cookies as food we can draw a very simple diagram with only 4 Outcomes. All of the Outcomes of a cookie must come together for it to be eaten and enjoyed thus satisfying the hunger of the person who eats it.
Illustration 52: Outcome Diagram for Eating Cookies
While we are expanding the Outcomes of cookies consider that each Outcome fits into the scenario of eating cookies. The correct size, correct texture, correct flavor, and correct temperature combine to make the cookie available, and enjoyably eaten.
Once you have selected the Outcomes, the next step is to choose an Object. What are the Objects of the Correct Size Outcome?
These are the obvious Objects but there is also:
Coming up with the lists of Elements is where you can use your imagination. Chunking can be a very useful technique for listing Elements.
Remember to consider the less obvious Elements. Cookies made for adults could be different sizes than cookies made for children. Also cookies might not be made for people at all so there are many other ways to look at this Outcome.
The shape of the cookie is affected by each individual size. We need to consider all of the sizes together because combined sizes makes the shape. Changing one of the sizes without considering the other sizes could adversely alter the shape.
A cookie that is too wide won't fit into your mouth because it hits the sides of your mouth. A flat round or flat square cookie could be too wide to eat. It could also be too wide to hold in your hands. If the cookie was soft and too wide it might droop over the sides of your hand. That problem often happens with slices of pizza.
A cookie with a height that is too much won't fit in your mouth because you can't open your mouth enough.
A cookie that is too long won't fit in your mouth when you close it, plus it could sag around your hands like a slice of pizza.
It is unlikely that a cookie would be too heavy to eat but the weight might effect serving sizes and a cookie which is too light might be considered undesirable.
States can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral. There are four ways a State can be desirable, undesirable, or neutral:
The Begin States and End States for cookies sizes are similar. The goal is for any undesirable Begin State to be a desirable End State. It is not important to list all the possible States, just the relevant States.
Correct width, correct height, and correct length are the desired States. The correct width, height and length will vary depending on each other. A cookie can have a larger height if the width is not large. The overall combination of shape and size result in the cookie being the desired correct size or an undesired or neutral size. The correct size is one that allows the cookie to be picked up with your hands, put in your mouth and eaten.
If the cookie is the wrong size for hands or mouth but could be easily modified that is a neutral State. An example is a cookie that can be easily broken in to pieces that are the correct size.
What are the Actions to make the cookie the correct size? The correct size for the mouth is different than the correct size for the hand. An obvious Action for making a cookie the correct size for the mouth is biting it. The cookie still needs to be the correct size for biting and must be the correct size for the hands. The various shapes of a cookie can result from different Actions.
Chocolate chip cookies are made into flat discs by measuring an amount of dough and baking it. The heat causes the dough to spread and form the shape. Sugar cookies are made into fancy shapes like hearts and stars by using a mold with the dough. Soft cookies could also be cut into shapes after they are baked. Many manufactured cookies are molded to have thin spots making them easier to break into smaller pieces. Cylindrical cookies can be molded, rolled, or folded before baking or in the middle of the process.
Look at each Begin State and each desired or neutral End State then list all the Actions that can result in a desired or neutral End State.
Measuring, molding, or cutting the dough can make the correct size and shape. Breaking, biting, and cutting can make a baked cookie the correct size and shape. Notice that we just introduced another State, baked and dough before baked.
So, we find that there are other States such as before the cookie is baked and after. Those States aren't part of the overall Outcome of Cookie, those are intermediary States related to the Action of making cookies.
Remember that Outcome Diagrams focus on States. Function Diagrams focus on Actions. Eventually you will want to create Function Diagrams for each Action. If you discover new information while listing Actions record it for later use.
Resist jumping into designing a solution at this stage. You will find many more options which might be more effective and less costly. Since the Element Expansion is quick and easy don't skip it. Complete the full process before deciding which solution you will use. A little thought can save a lot of work.
Look at the Action soak. Dipping a cookie in milk or tea is a popular way to eat cookies. A soft cookie is easier to eat. The size and shape of the cookie affects the ability to soak it. Long cylindrical cookies are much easier to soak than spherical balls. The long cylindrical cookie is too long to put completely in your mouth but it is perfect for dipping which then makes it easier to bite and eat. Soaking also points out other Objects such as the cup and liquid you are soaking the cookie in.
As we are listing Actions we discovered more Objects and States and related Outcomes. We also found the connection to Function Diagrams for baking cookies. That is exactly what we want to do. Don't worry about finding all the Elements at each stage. Write down all the information you gather and continue with the process. This may involve going back to previous steps and adding or changing what you had before. As you better understand the scenario you will be better able to describe it and thus all the innovations. The systematic approach will help you reveal all the options.
Tools are physical and non-physical items that are directly used in performing Actions. These are usually quite easy to list. For example, a cookie cutter helps you cut or mold a cookie into the correct shape and size.
Mold, pan, nozzle
Knife, saw, burner, scissors, die
Edge, scored line
Press, mold, rolling pin
Conditions are any State that may affect the ability to produce the desired State or changes which State is desired. The ingredients of a cookie affect that ability to make it the correct size and shape. Temperature could also affect the size and shape. If the cookie is frozen it might make it more or less difficult to bite or break into pieces that fit in your mouth.
Where and when are very common Conditions. Eating cookies for a snack at work is different from being at home which is different from being at a party. Who is eating the cookie changes what size is correct. A child's hands and mouth are different from an adult.
A Resource is anything available in the environment of the scenario that can help achieve the Outcome. The temperature could be useful for cutting or breaking a cookie. Knowing the temperature could be helpful for preparing and serving cookies. Knowing the moisture levels could also be helpful.
Just listing Elements does not find all the options. The first pass gives you something to work with. Multiplying Alternatives for each of the Elements shows you the ideas you did not find.
There are 6 dimensions used in Predictive Innovation. Finding What, How, When, and Where primarily deal with 3 of these dimensions. Why and Who requires more depth of all 6 dimensions. The 6 dimensions are:
There are 8 types of Actors. Each Actor can be a single person or multiple people. There is always at least one person who is the User. Users are the central focus of innovation. If the users' desires are not satisfied innovation fails. The 8 types of Actors are:
Customers are divided into four distinct roles: Beneficiary, User, Buyer, and Payer. Roles can be performed by one or more people but someone performs each of the roles. The desires of the person acting in that role are different from the desires related to the other roles.
Users are people who use the product or service. There must be at least one User. Satisfying the desires of the User is essential to innovation. Examples of Users' desires are:
Beneficiaries experience the benefits of the product or service. In most cases the User and the Beneficiary are the same person but not always. Products used in performing a service have a different User than the Beneficiary.
Deciders make the decision to purchase the product or service. Examples of Deciders' desires are:
Payers supply the money or materials for the innovation. For consumer products the User, Buyer and Payer are often the same person. In business these are usually three different people. Examples of Payers' desires are:
Provider is divided into four roles:
Provider can be divided differently but these four provide a sufficiently accurate description to understand the process. Just like customers these could be a single person or multiple people. The provider could also be the same person as the customer and each of the roles could be shared by people acting in other roles. So the User could be Builder and the other 6 roles be someone else.
Designers convert desires into actionable designs. This frequently is more than one person. Examples of Designers' desires are:
Builders convert design into real products. For services the builder does the work. Builders are often many different people. Examples of Builders' desires are:
Sellers deliver the product or service to the User. The Seller is involved in the purchase transaction. Examples of Sellers' desires are:
Communicator gathers information and translates between Actors. Examples of Communicators' desires are:
Customers act as more than just Users. There are markets and innovations for each Actor in a Scenario. Innovation starts by satisfying Users.